Longer-term effects of a high-quality preschool intervention on childrens mathematical development through age 12: Results from the German model project Kindergarten of the Future in Bavaria

  • Simone Lehrl
  • Katharina Kluczniok
  • Hans-Guenther Rossbach
  • Yvonne Anders


The present study examines how attending the German model project Kindergarten of the Future in Bavaria (KiDZ), which provided 138 children (aged 3 to 6) with traditional preschool stimulation combined with cognitive and domain-specific stimulation, is associated with childrens competencies in mathematics in the long-term run up to age 12 compared to a control group of 53 children.

Controlling for child and family background measures, attending KiDZ was positively associated with mathematical competencies at the age of 12 compared to the control group not attending. Those effects are mediated through grade and preschool quality. Furthermore results show, that preschool quality is associated with higher competencies in mathematics at age 12, even when controlling for numerical skills at preschool and primary school age. The results argue that preschool quality influences mathematical development over and above those effects detected earlier in preschool . Thus, the academically oriented high-quality preschool  intervention KiDZ lays not only the foundation for a good start in school but also for later development in secondary school.