Educational Assessment in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa PakistanΓÇÖs North-West Frontier Province: Practices, Issues, and Challenges for Educating Culturally Linguistically Diverse and Exceptional Children


  • Eirini Gouleta George Mason University


International education development, educational policy, educational assessment, language of instruction, culturally linguistically diverse and exceptional (CLDE) children, girlsΓÇÖ education, Pakistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa


This article presents the case of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan’s former North-West Frontier Province, and its provincial educational assessment policies and practices.  These policies and practices affect millions of Culturally Linguistically Diverse and Exceptional (CLDE) children who live in rural and remote areas, and areas afflicted by conflict and insurgency. The article raises questions about political interference, ethical conduct, and fairness in the administration and marking of the assessments. It discusses efforts for systematic administration and collection of learning assessment data, teacher professional development programs to improve assessment practices, policies which address the educational needs of the diverse students in the province, and challenges and barriers to province-wide sustainable education development. In conclusion, the author offers suggestions and recommendations for policy makers and education stakeholders towards capacity building and improvement of assessment practices for all learners while it attempts to shed light and dispel misconceptions about KP and its people. 

Author Biography

Eirini Gouleta, George Mason University

Associate Professor, International Education

Division of Advanced Professional Teacher Development and International Education

Graduate School of Education

College of Education and Human Development

George Mason University