A Perspective of Inclusion: Challenges for the Future

  • Maria-Luise Braunsteiner University College of Teacher Education ΓÇô Lower Austria
  • Susan Mariano-Lapidus Mercy College
Keywords: Inclusion, Inclusive Education, segregation, marginalization, Index for Inclusion, diversity



The term, inclusion, particularly in the educational setting, is still based on a deficit view. Perceptions of ΓÇÿdisΓÇÖ-ability create barriers to true inclusion and are often reinforced through higher education training programs. To promote inclusive values, acceptance of individual and cultural differences must be included in all curricula, not solely within special education. The future of a truly inclusive education relies on a cultural shift that supports and nurtures differences, and views success through a lens not focused on standardization but on diversity. The Index for Inclusion (The Index) has been utilized worldwide to support schools, to remove perceived barriers and to establish increasingly inclusive school cultures and practices. The Index aids in the creation of a culture that is dedicated to identifying and reducing barriers to inclusion and increases the learning and participation for all students.


Author Biographies

Maria-Luise Braunsteiner, University College of Teacher Education ΓÇô Lower Austria

Prof. Mag.

Susan Mariano-Lapidus, Mercy College
Special Education

Assistant Professor